A branch of
philosophy; "Epistemology is a science devoted to the discovery of the proper methods of acquiring and validating knowledge." [ ITOE, 47. ]

For more information on Epistemology, see the Epistemology-Aesthetics Study Group
Founded by Frederick C. Gibson and Alleyne Rogers

  • Sensations:
    "The lower of the conscious species possess only the faculty of sensation, which is sufficient to direct their actions and provide for their needs. A sensation is produced by the automatic reaction of a sense organ to a stimulus from the outside world; it lasts for the duration of the immediate moment, as long as the stimulus lasts and no longer. Sensations are an automatic response, an automatic form of knowledge, which a consciousness can neither seek nor evade. An organism that possesses only the faculty of sensation is guided by the pleasure-pain mechanism of its body..."
    ["The Objectivist Ethics," VOS, 9; pb18]
  • Reason:
    "is the faculty that identifies and integrates the material provided by
    man's senses." ["The Objectivist Ethics," VOS, 13; pb20]
  • Perception:
    "The higher organisms possess a much more potent form of consciousness: they possess the faculty of retaining
    sensations, which is the faculty of perception. A "perception" is a group of sensations automatically retained and integrated by the brain of a living organism, which gives it the ability to be aware, not of single stimuli, but of entities, of things. An animal is guided, not merely by immediate sensations, but by percepts. Its actions are not single, discrete responses to single, separate stimuli, but are directed by an integrated awareness of the perceptual reality confronting it. It is able to grasp the perceptual concretes immediately present and it is able to form automatic perceptual associations, but it can go no further." ["The Objectivist Ethics," VOS, 9; pb18]
  • Fact:
    "Something that has really occurred or is actually the case; something certainly known to be of this character; hence, a particular
    truth known by actual observation or authentic testimony, as opposed to what is merely inferred, or to a conjecture or fiction; a datum of experience, as distinguished from the conclusions that may be based upon it." [OED]
  • Truth:
    "Truth is the recognition of
    reality; reason, man's only means of knowledge, is his only standard of truth." [GS, FNI, 154; pb 126]
    "Truth is the identification of a fact of reality. Wheter the fact in question is metaphysical or man-made, the fact determines the truth: if the fact exists, there is no alternative in regard to what is true. For instance, the fact that the U.S. has 50 states was not metaphysically necessary -- but as long as this is men's choice, the propostion that "The U.S. has 50 states" is necessarily true. A true proposition must describe the facts as they are. In this sense, a "necessary truth" is a redundancy, and a "contingent truth" a self-contradiction." [ ITOE, 111. ]
  • Knowledge:
    "a mental grasp of a
    fact(s) of reality, reached either by perceptual observation or by a process of reason based on perceptual observation." [ ITOE, 45. ]
    • Science:
      "A particular branch of
      knowledge or study; a recognized department of learning." [OED]
      "In a more restricted sense: A branch of study which is concerned either with a connected body of demonstrated
      truths or with observed facts systematically classified and more or less colligated by being brought under general laws, and which includes trustworthy methods for the discovery of new truth within its own domain." [OED]
    • Theory:
      "A scheme or system of ideas or statements held as an explanation or account of a group of
      facts or phenomena; a hypothesis that has been confirmed or established by observation or experiment, and is propunded or accepted as accounting for the known facts; a statement of what are held to be the general laws, principles, or causes of something known or observed." [OED]
    • Colligate:
      "To bind or fasten together, connect."

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Copyright © 1995-2009 Frederick Clifford Gibson Architect & Associates
San Francisco, California - USA


OED Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press 1971

AHA A History of Architecture: Settings and Rituals, Spiro Kostof, Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford, 1985
FCG Frederick Clifford Gibson, Architect
FWM1 Frank Lloyd Wright: Monograph 1887-1901, vol. 1, Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer, A.D.A. Edita, Tokyo Co., Ltd, 1985
FWM2 Frank Lloyd Wright: Monograph 1902-1906, vol. 2, Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer, A.D.A. Edita, Tokyo Co., Ltd, 1985
FWM3 Frank Lloyd Wright: Monograph 1907-1913, vol. 3, Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer, A.D.A. Edita, Tokyo Co., Ltd, 1985
FWM4 Frank Lloyd Wright: Monograph 1914-1923, vol. 4, Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer, A.D.A. Edita, Tokyo Co., Ltd, 1985
FWM5 Frank Lloyd Wright: Monograph 1924-1936, vol. 5, Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer, A.D.A. Edita, Tokyo Co., Ltd, 1985
FWM6 Frank Lloyd Wright: Monograph 1937-1941, vol. 6, Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer, A.D.A. Edita, Tokyo Co., Ltd, 1985
FWM7 Frank Lloyd Wright: Monograph 1942-1950, vol. 7, Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer, A.D.A. Edita, Tokyo Co., Ltd, 1985
FWM8 Frank Lloyd Wright: Monograph 1951-1959, vol. 8, Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer, A.D.A. Edita, Tokyo Co., Ltd, 1985
FWM9 Frank Lloyd Wright: Preliminary Studies 1889-1916, vol. 9, Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer, A.D.A. Edita, Tokyo Co., Ltd, 1985
FWM10 Frank Lloyd Wright: Preliminary Studies 1917-1932, vol. 10, Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer, A.D.A. Edita, Tokyo Co., Ltd, 1985
FWM11 Frank Lloyd Wright: Preliminary Studies 1933-1959, vol. 11, Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer, A.D.A. Edita, Tokyo Co., Ltd, 1985
FWM12 Frank Lloyd Wright: In His Renderings 1887-1959, vol. 12, Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer, A.D.A. Edita, Tokyo Co., Ltd, 1985
MA Modern Architecture since 1900, William J R Curtis, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs (Phaidon Press Ltd., Oxford), New Jersey, 1982
OTAB On The Art of Building in Ten Books, Leon Battista Alberti, translated by Joseph Rykwert, Neil Leach, Robert Tavernor, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1472.
PGA Simon and Schuster's Pocket Guide to Architecture, Patrick Nuttgens, Simon and Schuster, New York, NY, 1980.
SCEA Santiago Calatrava, Engineering Architecture, Santiago Calatrava, Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel-Boston-Berlin, 1990.
SCCW Santiago Calatrava: Complete Works, Sergio Polano, Electa, Milan, 1996
TAFW The Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright: A Complete Catalog, William Allin Storrer, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA & London, England, 1982
TAI The Autobiography of an Idea, Louis H. Sullivan, Dover Publications, Inc, New York, 1924.
TNH The Natural House, Frank Llyod Wright, New American Library, New York, 1970.
VTBA Vitruvius: The Ten Books on Architecture, Vitruvius, Morris Hicky Morgan, PH.D., LL.D. trans., Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1914

CWA The Complete Works of Aristotle (in two volumes), by Aristotle (Ed. Jonathan Barnes), Princeton / Bollingen Serries LXXI, 1984
ABW Basic Works of Aristotle, by Aristotle (Richard McKein), Random House, April 1941
A Aristotle, by John Hermann Randall, Jr., Columbia University Press, New York, 1960.
AP Aristotle: Poetics, with the Tracatus Coislinianus, reconstruction of Poetics II, and the fragments of the On Poets, Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), Richard Janko trans., Hackett Publishing Company, Indianapolis / Cambridge, 1987
ACPR Aristotle's Criticism of Plato's Republic, by Robert Mayhew, Rowman & Littlefield, 1997.
ECHU An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, by John Locke (Roger Woolhouse), Penguin Classics, 1689 (1998 reprint)
CUI Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal (1966), Ayn Rand
FNI For the New Intellectual (1961), Ayn Rand
GS Galt's Speech in Atlas Shrugged (1957), Ayn Rand
ITOE Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology (1979), Ayn Rand
OP The Ominous Parallels (1982), Leonard Peikoff
OPAR Objectivism: The Philosophy of Ayn Rand (1991), Leonard Peikoff 
PWNI Philosophy: Who Needs It (1982), Ayn Rand
RM The Romantic Manifesto (1975), Ayn Rand
VOS The Virtue of Selfishness : A New Concept of Egoism (1964), Ayn Rand

MW Michael Wilkinson